OPEN(1) BSD General Commands Manual OPEN(1)NAMEopen -- open files and directoriesSYNOPSISopen [-e] [-t] [-f] [-F] [-W] [-R] [-n] [-g] [-h] [-b bundle_identifier] [-a application] file ...[--args arg1 ...]DESCRIPTIONThe open command opens a file (or a directory or URL), just as if you had double-clicked the file'sicon. If no application name is specified, the default application as determined via LaunchServices isused to open the specified files.If the file is in the form of a URL, the file will be opened as a URL.You can specify one or more file names (or pathnames), which are interpreted relative to the shell orTerminal window's current working directory. For example, the following command would open all Wordfiles in the current working directory:open *.docOpened applications inherit environment variables just as if you had launched the application directlythrough its full path. This behavior was also present in Tiger.The options are as follows:-a applicationSpecifies the application to use for opening the file-b bundle_indentifierSpecifies the bundle identifier for the application to use when opening the file-e Causes the file to be opened with /Applications/TextEdit-t Causes the file to be opened with the default text editor, as determined via LaunchServices-f Reads input from standard input and opens the results in the default text editor. End input bysending EOF character (type Control-D). Also useful for piping output to open and having it openin the default text editor.-F Opens the application "fresh," that is, without restoring windows. Saved persistent state is lost,except for Untitled documents.-W Causes open to wait until the applications it opens (or that were already open) have exited. Usewith the -n flag to allow open to function as an appropriate app for the $EDITOR environment vari-able. variable.able.-R Reveals the file(s) in the Finder instead of opening them.-n Open a new instance of the application(s) even if one is already running.-g Do not bring the application to the foreground.-h Searches header locations for a header whose name matches the given string and then opens it. Passa full header name (such as NSView.h) for increased performance.--argsAll remaining arguments are passed to the opened application in the argv parameter to main().These arguments are not opened or interpreted by the open tool.EXAMPLES"open '/Volumes/Macintosh HD/foo.txt'" opens the document in the default application for its type (asdetermined by LaunchServices)."open '/Volumes/Macintosh HD/Applications/'" opens that directory in the Finder."open -a /Applications/TextEdit.app '/Volumes/Macintosh HD/foo.txt'" opens the document in the applica-tion applicationtion specified (in this case, TextEdit)."open -b com.apple.TextEdit '/Volumes/Macintosh HD/foo.txt'" opens the document in the applicationspecified (in this case, TextEdit)."open -e '/Volumes/Macintosh HD/foo.txt'" opens the document in TextEdit."ls | open -f" writes the output of the 'ls' command to a file in /tmp and opens the file in thedefault text editor (as determined by LaunchServices)."open http://www.apple.com/" opens the URL in the default browser."open 'file://localhost/Volumes/Macintosh HD/foo.txt'" opens the document in the default applicationfor its type (as determined by LaunchServices)."open 'file://localhost/Volumes/Macintosh HD/Applications/'" opens that directory in the Finder."open -h NSView" lists headers whose names contain NSView and allows you to choose which ones to open."open -a Xcode -h NSString.h" quickly opens /System/Library/Frameworks/Foundation.framework/Head-ers/NSString.h /System/Library/Frameworks/Foundation.framework/Headers/NSString.hers/NSString.h in Xcode.HISTORYFirst appeared in NextStep.